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Failures of shafts are invariably of the form of fatigue failures originating from stress raisers, such as radii, at changes in cross section. If the design, manufacture, material selection or loading is not adequately addressed, then failure can ultimately ensue. Designs may be checked by hand calculation and if crack formation is possible, then ultrasonic NDT can be used to monitor shafts in-situ. Alternatively, dye-penetrant and magnetic particle inspection (MPI) can be used once the shaft is removed.